جمعه 31 فروردين 1397 Friday 20 April 2018 4 شعبان 1439

IELTS Writing

چگونگی نوشتن Writing Task 2

نوشتن Writing Task 2

در این مقاله به قوانین اصلی لازم برای نوشتن یک Writing Task 2 می پردازیم. همانطویکه می دانید این Writing بین زبان آموزان جنرال و آکادمیک یکسان می باشد و تنها تفاوت در موضوعات آنهاست. مطالبی که در این قسمت به بررسی آنها می پردازیم عبارتند از:

 

1. انواع سئوالات در Writing

2. نوشتن مقدمه خوب برای یک Essay

3. چگونگی نوشتن پاراگراف های بدنه و مقدمه ای برروی Cohesion

4. نوع اول - Writingهای تک وجهی

5. نوع دوم - Writingهای دووجهی

6. نوع سوم - Writingهای Cause و Solution

7. نوع جهارم - Writingهای Cause و Effect

9. نوع پنجم - Writingهای Effect و Solution

 

 

نوع پنجمWriting - اثرات سوء و راهکارها

نوشتن Writing - نوع پنجم

نوع سوم سئوالات Account Type سئوالات Adverse Effects و Solutions هستند. در این سئوالات یک مشکل مطرح می شود و از شما می خواهند اثرات سوء مشکل و راهکارهای آن را بررسی کنید.

 

برای نوشتن این Writing می توانیم دو پاراگراف بدنه (یکی Effectها و دیگری راهکارها) داشته باشیم.

 

مقدمه را هم می توانید در دو بخش خلاصه کنید:

  • بخش اول: معرفی مشکل و اشاره خیلی مختصر به چند دلیل به صورت تیتروار
  • بخش دوم: بیان اینکه روی چه جنبه هایی از مشکل قرار است بحث کنیم (در اینجا اثرات و راهکارها)
  •  

توجه داشته باشید که لازم نیست در مقدمه در مورد جزئیات اثرات و راهکارهای آن صحبت کرد.

در مورد نتیجه گیری هم ابتدا می گوییم که موضوع در چه زمینه ای بوده و سپس به صورت خلاصه، راهکارهای ذکر شده در پاراگراف های قبل را ذکر میکنیم (اختیاری).

در زیر، نمونه ای از این نوع Writing را مشاهده می کنید.

 

Today, more school leavers are unable to find jobs. Discuss the adverse effects of rising unemployment among young adults and suggest any solutions.

 

نوع چهارمWriting - علت و اثرات

نوع چهارم Writing - دلایل و اثرات سوء

نوع دوم سئوالات Account Type سئوالات Cause و Adverse Effects هستند. در این سئوالات یک مشکل مطرح می شود و از شما می خواهند دلایل بوجود آمدن این مشکل و اثرات سوء آن را بررسی کنید.

 برای نوشتن این Writing می توانیم دو پاراگراف بدنه (یکی Causeها و دیگری برای Adverse Effectsها) داشته باشیم.

 مقدمه را هم می توانید در دو بخش خلاصه کنید:

  • بخش اول: معرفی مشکل
  • بخش دوم: بیان اینکه روی چه جنبه هایی از مشکل قرار است بحث کنیم (در اینجا دلایل و اثرات)

توجه داشته باشید که لازم نیست در مقدمه در مورد جزئیات دلایل و یا اثرات آن صحبت کرد.

 

در مورد نتیجه گیری هم ابتدا می گوییم که موضوع در چه زمینه ای بوده است و سپس یکی دو راهکار برای حل آن ارائه می کنیم.

در زیر، نمونه ای از این نوع Writing را مشاهده می کنید.

 

Some findings have revealed that cities around the world are growing large. Could you outline the possible causes and predict consequences?

 

While urban sprawl has been taken as a positive development in many newly emerging cities, it is increasingly perceived as a threat to rural environment and considered as a trigger for numerous urban problems. The objective of this essay is to evaluate the forces behind this trend and its consequences.

 

Population growth is widely recognized as the primary reason. The room in the city center is so limited that it fails to provide enough housing to accommodate an ever-growing population. Another problem that has intensified in the inner city is infrastructure shortage and poor conditions of buildings. Lack of amenities such as water and electricity supply, waste disposal, sewage treatment, to name but a few, has left no choice to urban dwellers but to resettle in the suburbs, where they have easier access to new facilities. In addition, city dwellers are not always moving outward unwillingly. The continued increase in household incomes gives renewed impetus to urban development, People nowadays have higher expectations for quality of life and a growing appetite for lower-density housing with a larger open space. It is possibly the main reason why the real estate market has its focus now on the outskirts of the city, but not on the center. In the meantime, the affordability and ubiquity of car ownership has made transport a less serious concern for those living in suburbs. They can commute daily between the place of work and the place of residence with ease.

 

The sustained expansion of cities will make a marked impact on the society in several dimensions. The high traffic volume between suburbs and urban areas would cause severe air pollution and reduce the lands suitable for farming. Urban sprawl requires large developments, causing areas to lose some of their unique qualities and characteristics. From the economic perspective, the relocation of a high population in suburbs will pose adverse fiscal impacts on the local government in infrastructure construction. To those who used to live in suburbs, die inflow of new inhabitants would damage the community spirit and make relations between neighbors fragile.

 

Urban sprawl is, therefore, a trend which has a strong effect on the environment, communities and government budgeting. When urban decay and citizens' desire for higher standard of living make this trend irreversible, the emphasis should be placed on planned and sustainable development.

نوع سومWriting - علت و راهکار

نوع سوم Writing - موضوعات Cause and Solution

سومین نوع از Topicها، writingهای Problem – Solutionی هستند. یک problem میتواند شامل سه وجه شود:

problem and solution writings 

که از بین این سه وجه در سئوالات همیشه دو وجه آنها خواسته می شود. در این بخش تنها برروی  Cause & Solutionها بحث خواهیم کرد و دو مدل دیگر را به بخش بعد موکول خواهیم کرد.

برای نوشتن یک Writing از نوع Cause و Solution می توانیم دو پاراگراف بدنه (یکی برای Causeها و دیگری برای Solutionها) و یا سه پاراگراف بدنه (هر Cause و Solutionهای متناظر آن در یک پاراگراف جداگانه) داشته باشیم. درحالت دو پاراگرافه حواستان باشد که در پاراگراف Solutionها حتماً باید دوباره به دلایل اشاره کنیم و برای هر دلیل یک یا چند راهکار متناظر آنها را اشاره کنیم و بنابراین نمی توانیم یک سری راهکار کلی بیان کنیم و بگوییم که اینها باعث می شوند مشکل حل می شود!

 

مقدمه را هم می توانید در سه بخش خلاصه کنید:

  • بخش اول: معرفی مشکل
  • بخش دوم: بیان یک یا چند اثر بد این مشکل (صرفاً برای تاکید بر اهمیت موضوع) – اختیاری
  • بخش سوم: بیان اینکه روی چه جنبه هایی از مشکل قرار است بحث کنیم (در اینجا دلایل و راهکارها)

 

در زیر دو نمونه Writing مشاهده می کنید که یکی از آنها به سبک بدنه دوپاراگرفه و دیگری سه پاراگرافه نوشته شده اند.

 

Our cities are noisier than ever before. Why is this so, and what can be done about it?

 

There is no doubt that we have to live with far more noise than in the past, particularly in cities, and this may be the form of pollution which affects us most directly. For example, it has been found that prolonged exposure to high levels of noise can lead to hearing loss and high blood pressure. It may also give rise to stress, insomnia and mental problems, including depression. There are main causes, each of which requires an appropriate response from governments and society as a whole.

 

These problems, in turn, often result in lower productivity at work because employees are too tired and stressed to work efficiently. In order to find effective solutions to the problem, it is necessary to understand what has brought about this increase in noise. There are three main causes. Firstly, there is traffic noise, due to the ever-increasing number of vehicles on our roads. The second major source of noise in our cities is low-flying aircraft which have either just taken off, or are just landing at local airports. Finally, there is noise caused by neighbours listening to music or watching television at full volume, or using noisy power tools such as drills or lawn mowers.

 

Clearly, noise is a serious problem. It is therefore essential that measures should be taken to reduce the amount of noise in our daily lives. Regarding traffic noise, the most obvious answer is improved soundproofing for buildings near busy roads. In addition, local authorities ought to consider imposing strict speed limits in residential areas. One way in which aircraft noise could be lessened is by building airports further away from urban areas. Moreover, legislation should prohibit aeroplanes from flying over built-up areas. As far as noisy neighbours are concerned, the only effective solution for us all to behave more considerately by, for example, turning down the volume of our music or televisions and limiting our use of noisy power tools.

 

In conclusion, there is no simple solution to the problem. However, if the measures I have suggested were introduced, we would all enjoy a better quality of life. As a result of living and working in a quieter environment, people would feel more relaxed and they would be less prone to the physiological and psychological problems that are known to stem from exposure to high levels of noise.

 

Increasing numbers of workers are suffering from stress and stress-related illnesses. Why is the modern workplace so stressful and what can be done to reduce this problem?

 

Despite generally better working conditions and higher pay, workers today seem to suffer more than ever before from stress and stress-related illnesses, including headaches, depression and heart-disease. Since stress at work has a number of causes, there is no single "cure". Each cause needs to be dealt with in a particular way.

 

Firstly, work related stress stems partly from ever-increasing workloads. Companies today demand that employees cope with heavier workloads while working to tighter and tighter deadlines. This not only puts workers under great pressure but also means that they work far longer hours than they used to. For the sake of employees' well-being, legislation limiting the number of hours worked should be strictly enforced. Furthermore, systems agreed on by both management and employees ought to be implemented to avoid workloads and unrealistic deadlines.

 

Secondly, a major source of stress in today's workplace is the rapid pace of technological change. In order to keep ahead in business, companies need to invest in new technology. This often means, however, that employees, are constantly having to get used to using new equipment, software or techniques, and this can be frustrating and stressful process. It is essential, therefore, that whenever such innovations are introduced, employees should be given adequate training and support so that the changeover to new technologies is relatively stress-free. Also, perhaps managers should take a more judicious approach to the introduction of new technology so as to avoid unnecessary change, and not just make change for change's sake.

 

Finally, today's lack of job security and the consequent worry about the future contribute significantly to stress in the workplace. Few employers these days offer long-term contracts. As a result, workplaces are becoming increasingly competitive as employees try to reach targets set by their managers in order to secure their future with the company. Clearly, the only way to address this is for employers to show more commitment towards their employees. Legislation ought to be brought into force with the aim of protecting worker's rights and ensuring a greater level of job security for employees.

 

In conclusion, a certain amount of stress is a fact of life in all workplaces. However, since the consequences are harmful to both the company and to society as a whole, employers must take measures such as those suggested above to ensure that stress does not reach levels which threaten the mental and physical health of their employees.

نوع دوم Writing - موضوعات دووجهی

نوع دوم Writing - موضوعات دووجهی

دومین نوع از Topicهایی که مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد، سئوالات دووجهی هستند. در این سئوالات دو ایده برروی یک موضوع ارائه می شود و از شما خواسته می شود پس از بررسی دو طرف موضوع، دیدگاه خود را با یکی از آنها ارائه دهید. معمولاً این سئوالات با عبارتی مثل: Discuss both views and give your own opinion تمام میشوند.

برای نوشتن این موضوعات معمولاً ساده ترین حالت، نوشته یک متن 4 پاراگرافه است. بدین صورت که یک مقدمه 3 تا 4 خطه، دو پاراگراف بدنه 7 تا 8 خط و یک پاراگراف نتیجه گیری 3 تا 4 خطه نوشته می شود.

در پاراگراف مقدمه نیاز به دو جمله داریم. یک جمله ابتدایی که بیان کند موضوع کلی روی چیست و جمله دوم که نظر خودمان را به صورت غیرمستقیم بیان کند (برروی الگوهای مقدمه در درس های بعدی بیشتر یاد خواهید گرفت). توجه داشته باشید که در زمان نوشتن این دوجمله، حتماً به گونه ای باید دو طرف بحث آورده شوند. اینکه چطوری آنها را بیان کنید فرقی نمی کند. مثلاً می توانید در جمله اول نظر یک طرف را به صورت یک روند بیان کنید و درجمله بعد نظر طرف دیگر را که با نظر خودتان هم یکسان است بیاورید. و یا می توانید در جمله اول یک حقیقت کلی در مورد موضوع بگویید و در جمله بعد مثلا با ساختاری مثل although یا while هر دو دیدگاه را بیان کنید.

در پاراگراف های بدنه، در هر پاراگراف دو یا سه ایده بیان می شود و سپس با استفاده از مثال و دلیل، سعی در اثبات و ساپورت آن خواهیم داشت. در ابتدای پاراگراف هم می توانید یک جمله کلی Topic Sentence بیاورید که به صورت کلی ایده ها را شامل شود و یا می توانید با یکی از همان ایده ها شروع کنید. یعنی یکی از روش های زیر:

Topic Sentence >>> Reason 1 + Support >>> Reason 2 + Support >>> Reason 3 + Support

Reason 1 + Support >>> Reason 2 + Support >>> Reason 3 + Support

در انتها نیز یک پاراگراف برای نتیجه گیری احتیاج داریم که در جمله اول آن حتماً نظرتان به صراحت بیان شود به طوری که جواب سئوال خواسته شده را کاملاً مستقیم بیان کند و سپس در صورت نیاز به خطوط بیشتر،  به ارائه راهکارهایی برای بهتر شدن موضوع و یا راضی کردن هر دو طرف دعوا می پردازیم.

در زیر نمونه ای از یک Writing نوع دووجهی را خواهید دید.


Television has brought great changes to the way many children spend their leisure time. While some of these changes have been beneficial, others have had a harmful effect. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

 

In the past fifty years, television has become more popular among children than any other form of home entertainment and many children spend several hours a day watching it. Although parents and teachers often disapprove of it, few would prevent their children from watching it.

 

As a leisure activity, television has several advantages for children. Firstly, it is an easier and safer way for them to relax than, for instance, playing in the street or in the park. Secondly, television can be highly educational because children can learn about subjects, like music or sport; things which they cannot read about in books. Moreover, they acquire a wider vocabulary and improve their general knowledge. Lastly, television fosters children's interest in subjects and gives them interests in common. In consequence, they are better-informed about the world than children were in the past and they form attitudes and opinions about things outside their direct experience.

 

However, any invention as pervasive as television is bound to have some harmful effects. Nowadays perhaps, children in general are not as sociable as previous generations of children, who used to spend more time playing with friends. As a result, some children may feel lonelier and more isolated. In addition, they may be less imaginative than children in the past because they do not have to invent their own games and because they spend less time reading books. Finally, since they spend so much time in front of the television, they may have fewer hobbies, and, therefore, their range of leisure activities may be more limited than previous generations.

 

To sum up, it is clear that television has had both positive and negative effects on the way children spend their leisure time. I believe that parents should monitor both how much time their children spend watching television and the type of programs they watch, and encourage them to watch those which are either entertaining or educational. However, children should also be encouraged to find time for other activities, such as playing with friends or pursuing hobbies.

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