دوشنبه 2 مهر 1397 Monday 24 September 2018 13 محرم 1440

نوشتن مقدمه در Writing

مقدمه در Writing

مقدمه به نوعی بازنویسی سئوال است. به طوریکه اگر خواننده مقدمه شما را خواند، بتواند بفهمد موضوع سئوال دقیقاً چه بوده است و شما قرار است روی چه چیزی نظر بدهید. درباره ارزیابی Writing بیشتر بحث خواهیم کرد اما فعلاً چیزی که باید بدانید این است که مهمترین و اولین قسمتی از Writing شما که خوانده می شود، همان مقدمه است. اگر مقدمه خوبی نداشته باشید امکان گرفتن نمره بالا اصلاً وجود ندارد. پس یادتان باشد که مقدمه تان باید خیلی صریح و مستقیم به موضوع خواسته شده بپردازد.

 

تمرین. در این تمرین، موضوعاتی ارائه شده و برای هرکدام از آنها نیز 3 مقدمه نوشته شده است. تمام مقدمه های ارائه شده از نظر لغوی و گرامری درست هستند اما فقط یکی از آنها از نظر محتوا می تواند مقدمه مناسبی باشد. پس از پیدا کردن جواب درست، باید بگویید که چرا دو مقدمه دیگر نمی توانند مقدمه خوبی باشند.

 

Many judges prefer to sentence young offenders to do community service, such as working in an old people's home, collecting litter, or painting a local school, rather than send them to prison.  This form of punishment has a number of benefits but also some drawbacks.

A  In many Western societies crime committed by young men and women has reached epidemic proportions.  It is clear that traditional forms of punishment such as prison sentences no longer act as a deterrent to these offenders, and that other more effective punishments are required.  Probably the most effective of these is community service.  There are a number of reasons why this is so.

B  The traditional method of dealing with young people who break the law has been to send them to prison.  However, in many countries the juvenile crime rate has continued to rise and governments have had to look for other ways to tackle the problem, such as sentencing young offenders to community service.  In common with all forms of punishment, this has both advantages and disadvantages.

C  Most young people who turn to crime do so on account of the social environment in which they live and their upbringing.  These offenders need correction rather than punishment, and there are a number of reasons why prison is not the most effective way of achieving this.

 

Prison serves no useful purpose for young first-time offenders.  No young person committing a crime for the first time should receive a prison sentence.

A  Most young criminals commit their first crime while they are teenagers and generally do so because they are looking for excitement, or because they are following the example of older friends.  I am convinced that sending these young people to prison is a counter-productive way of combating crime, and there are a number of reasons why I believe young first-time offenders should not be imprisoned.

B  No one would dispute the fact that in many societies today juvenile crime has become a very serious issue.  While there is much discussion about what form of punishment is the most effective in dealing with young offenders, we seldom consider the causes of the problem.  In order to find a solution, we need to look at what motivates these young people to commit crimes.

C  Soaring crime rates have meant that prison populations are growing too quickly for governments to cope with.  Spending on overcrowded prisons is a drain on a country's resources and does nothing to reduce crime.  There are a number of alternative forms of punishment which ought to be considered.

 

Every year thousands of workers from poor countries enter richer, more developed countries illegally to live and work, and this gives rise to a variety of social problems in those countries.  What can be done to deal with this situation?

A  The migration of workers from poorer countries to richer, more developed countries is becoming increasingly common in the modern world.  War, political oppression, poverty and lack of employment opportunities are the main reasons why people leave their home countries.  The governments of these countries need to take urgent measures to prevent people leaving in such large numbers.

B  In recent years restrictions on immigration into rich countries combined with a lack of opportunities in their home countries have resulted in an increase in the number of illegal immigrants.  This influx of immigrants, in turn, has led to a range of social problems related to unemployment, cultural integration, education and housing, all of which require an appropriate response from the governments of the countries affected.

C  The widening gap between the relatively high standard of living in developed countries and the hardship of poorer nations continues to force many people to enter countries illegally in search of a better life.  It is argued that this situation causes social problems such as increased crime and unemployment.  However, there is very little evidence to support this point of view.


We are all citizens of the world.  People should be allowed to move freely, and to live and work in the country of their choice without restrictions.

A  Due to phenomena such as globalisation and the general opening up of boarders which have taken place in recent decades, an increasing number of people are choosing to work and settle down outside their county of birth.  This has certain benefits and drawbacks, both for individuals and for society as a whole.

B  Increasing numbers of asylum seekers and economic and political refugees have led many governments to impose harsh immigration restrictions.  However, such restrictions mean that many individuals are condemned to lives of poverty or oppression from which they cannot escape.  Governments of wealthier nations ought to take measures to alleviate the problems these people face.

C  In response to the growing pressure from people living in developing countries to be allowed to migrate and work in developed countries, many governments have now imposed harsh restrictions on immigration.  However, more and more people believe that these restrictions should be relaxed.

 

More and more people throughout the world are now living to a very old age and it is unreasonable to expect their families to look after them. The state should take responsibility for caring for old people when they are no longer capable of looking after themselves.

A  Over the course of the last hundred years, life expectancy has increased considerably in most countries of the world.  However, problems such as failing health and dementia mean that this growing population of senior citizens needs looking after.  The pressures of modern life make it difficult for families to take care of older relatives as they used to in the past so the state should now take on this responsibility.

B  Life expectancy throughout the world has increased dramatically even in the last fifty years.  In countries as different as Turkey and Korea, for example, life expectancy has increased by 20 years since 1960.  There are three basic reasons why this has occurred.

C  People around the world are living longer than ever before, but is this necessarily a good thing?  No doubt most younger and middle-aged people welcome the idea that they will live longer than previous generations did.  Yet few of us consider the problems, both for society and for individuals, associated with living to a very old age.

 

Advances in medicine and health care mean that increasing numbers of people are living to a very old age.  This creates a number of social problems, but at the same time has some positive effects on society.

A  People around the world are living longer than ever before, but is this necessarily a good thing?  No doubt most younger and middle-aged people welcome the idea that they will live longer than previous generations.  Yet few of us consider the physical, mental and emotional problems associated with living to a very old age.

B  As individuals, we all welcome the greater longevity that improved health care grants us.  However, the consequences for society of an ageing population are not so desirable.  Who will take care of the increasing numbers of elderly people with poor health and failing mental faculties?  How will the state cope with the financial burden of so many people drawing pensions?  There are a number of ways in which governments must act in order to deal with these problems effectively.

C  Improved health care and a better diet have helped increase life expectancy around the world.  Most of us welcome the idea that we will live longer, but what are the consequences of an ageing population for society as a whole?  In fact, this development has both advantages and disadvantages for society.


نوشتن مقدمه برای موضوعات مباحثه ای (3 موضوع اول
بجز Problem-Solution)

در این قسمت می خواهیم به بررسی قسمت های یک مقدمه در امتحان IELTS بپردازیم. هر مقدمه باید شامل دو بخش باشد:

 

  • Fact + Emphasis: روندی که مورد موضوع مورد نظر را ارائه می کند. این بخش شامل یکی دو جمله می شود که به صورت کاملاً قطعی، روندی را در مورد موضوع بیان می کند. این روند می تواند یک روند همیشگی (حال ساده)، یک روند اخیر (حال کامل) و یا یک روند تدریجی در زمان حال (حال استمراری) باشد. و اگر لازم شد با یکی دو جمله دیگر بر اهمیت بحث برروی آن موضوع تاکید میشود.
  •  
  • Arguments + Thesis Statement: یک یا دو جمله که نظرات و ایده های مورد بحث طرفین را بیان کرده و سپس بگوییم که ما قرار است روی چه جنبه ای از موضوع بحث کنیم. در صورت تمایل نیز می توانیم نظر خود را ترجیحاً به صورت مستقیم در انتها بیان کنیم. در نوشتن این قسمت سعی میکنیم جنس نوشته ها از نوع IDEA باشد و بنابراین قطعیت نخواهند داشت.

به مثال زیر توجه کنید:

Television has brought great changes to the way many children spend their leisure time. While some of these changes have been beneficial, others have had a harmful effect.

To what extent do you agree or disagree.

In the past fifty years, television has become more popular among children than any other form of home entertainment and many children spend several hours a day watching it. Although parents and teachers often disapprove of it, few would prevent their children from watching it.

همانطوریکه می بینید در جمله اول یک روند که اخیراً در مورد موضوع اتفاق افتاده است را بیان می کند تا بدین ترتیب قسمت بصورت کلی موضوع را بیان کنیم. سپس با یک ساختار Although، نظر دوطرف بحث را بیان کرده و آنرا طوری می نویسیم که خواننده بفهمد ما با کدام طرف موافق تریم (جمله دوم).

 

Cultural tourism, where people travel in order to visit museums, monuments and archaeological sites among other things, is a growing industry. Having so many visitors may sometimes benefit a nation's cultural heritage, but it can also cause problems.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

Nowadays, cultural tourism is welcomed and encourages in most countries, which it is seen both as an opportunity to display national treasures and achievements to visitors, and also as a source of income and jobs. However, in spite of these benefits, it can also pose severe problems for the specific sites which are visited.

در این مثال هم همانطوریکه می بینید، موضوع با یک جمله حال ساده (روند کلی و همیشگی) ارائه شده  است و سپس در همان جمله سعی شده است تا نظر یکی از طرفین نیز به صورت پنهان بیان شود. و سپس در جمله دوم نظر نویسنده به صورت پنهان بیان شده است.

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