دوشنبه 2 مهر 1397 Monday 24 September 2018 13 محرم 1440

نوع سومWriting - علت و راهکار

نوع سوم Writing - موضوعات Cause and Solution

سومین نوع از Topicها، writingهای Problem – Solutionی هستند. یک problem میتواند شامل سه وجه شود:

problem and solution writings 

که از بین این سه وجه در سئوالات همیشه دو وجه آنها خواسته می شود. در این بخش تنها برروی  Cause & Solutionها بحث خواهیم کرد و دو مدل دیگر را به بخش بعد موکول خواهیم کرد.

برای نوشتن یک Writing از نوع Cause و Solution می توانیم دو پاراگراف بدنه (یکی برای Causeها و دیگری برای Solutionها) و یا سه پاراگراف بدنه (هر Cause و Solutionهای متناظر آن در یک پاراگراف جداگانه) داشته باشیم. درحالت دو پاراگرافه حواستان باشد که در پاراگراف Solutionها حتماً باید دوباره به دلایل اشاره کنیم و برای هر دلیل یک یا چند راهکار متناظر آنها را اشاره کنیم و بنابراین نمی توانیم یک سری راهکار کلی بیان کنیم و بگوییم که اینها باعث می شوند مشکل حل می شود!

 

مقدمه را هم می توانید در سه بخش خلاصه کنید:

  • بخش اول: معرفی مشکل
  • بخش دوم: بیان یک یا چند اثر بد این مشکل (صرفاً برای تاکید بر اهمیت موضوع) – اختیاری
  • بخش سوم: بیان اینکه روی چه جنبه هایی از مشکل قرار است بحث کنیم (در اینجا دلایل و راهکارها)

 

در زیر دو نمونه Writing مشاهده می کنید که یکی از آنها به سبک بدنه دوپاراگرفه و دیگری سه پاراگرافه نوشته شده اند.

 

Our cities are noisier than ever before. Why is this so, and what can be done about it?

 

There is no doubt that we have to live with far more noise than in the past, particularly in cities, and this may be the form of pollution which affects us most directly. For example, it has been found that prolonged exposure to high levels of noise can lead to hearing loss and high blood pressure. It may also give rise to stress, insomnia and mental problems, including depression. There are main causes, each of which requires an appropriate response from governments and society as a whole.

 

These problems, in turn, often result in lower productivity at work because employees are too tired and stressed to work efficiently. In order to find effective solutions to the problem, it is necessary to understand what has brought about this increase in noise. There are three main causes. Firstly, there is traffic noise, due to the ever-increasing number of vehicles on our roads. The second major source of noise in our cities is low-flying aircraft which have either just taken off, or are just landing at local airports. Finally, there is noise caused by neighbours listening to music or watching television at full volume, or using noisy power tools such as drills or lawn mowers.

 

Clearly, noise is a serious problem. It is therefore essential that measures should be taken to reduce the amount of noise in our daily lives. Regarding traffic noise, the most obvious answer is improved soundproofing for buildings near busy roads. In addition, local authorities ought to consider imposing strict speed limits in residential areas. One way in which aircraft noise could be lessened is by building airports further away from urban areas. Moreover, legislation should prohibit aeroplanes from flying over built-up areas. As far as noisy neighbours are concerned, the only effective solution for us all to behave more considerately by, for example, turning down the volume of our music or televisions and limiting our use of noisy power tools.

 

In conclusion, there is no simple solution to the problem. However, if the measures I have suggested were introduced, we would all enjoy a better quality of life. As a result of living and working in a quieter environment, people would feel more relaxed and they would be less prone to the physiological and psychological problems that are known to stem from exposure to high levels of noise.

 

Increasing numbers of workers are suffering from stress and stress-related illnesses. Why is the modern workplace so stressful and what can be done to reduce this problem?

 

Despite generally better working conditions and higher pay, workers today seem to suffer more than ever before from stress and stress-related illnesses, including headaches, depression and heart-disease. Since stress at work has a number of causes, there is no single "cure". Each cause needs to be dealt with in a particular way.

 

Firstly, work related stress stems partly from ever-increasing workloads. Companies today demand that employees cope with heavier workloads while working to tighter and tighter deadlines. This not only puts workers under great pressure but also means that they work far longer hours than they used to. For the sake of employees' well-being, legislation limiting the number of hours worked should be strictly enforced. Furthermore, systems agreed on by both management and employees ought to be implemented to avoid workloads and unrealistic deadlines.

 

Secondly, a major source of stress in today's workplace is the rapid pace of technological change. In order to keep ahead in business, companies need to invest in new technology. This often means, however, that employees, are constantly having to get used to using new equipment, software or techniques, and this can be frustrating and stressful process. It is essential, therefore, that whenever such innovations are introduced, employees should be given adequate training and support so that the changeover to new technologies is relatively stress-free. Also, perhaps managers should take a more judicious approach to the introduction of new technology so as to avoid unnecessary change, and not just make change for change's sake.

 

Finally, today's lack of job security and the consequent worry about the future contribute significantly to stress in the workplace. Few employers these days offer long-term contracts. As a result, workplaces are becoming increasingly competitive as employees try to reach targets set by their managers in order to secure their future with the company. Clearly, the only way to address this is for employers to show more commitment towards their employees. Legislation ought to be brought into force with the aim of protecting worker's rights and ensuring a greater level of job security for employees.

 

In conclusion, a certain amount of stress is a fact of life in all workplaces. However, since the consequences are harmful to both the company and to society as a whole, employers must take measures such as those suggested above to ensure that stress does not reach levels which threaten the mental and physical health of their employees.

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